Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the worlds oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918.
The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a fully royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance.
Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!" which is "it appeared!" in English. The principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, which is visible from any area in the capital.Matenadaran
The Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts, commonly referred to as the Matenadaran, is a repository of ancient manuscripts, research institute and museum in Yerevan, Armenia. It holds one of the worlds richest depositories of medieval manuscripts and books which span a broad range of subjects, including theology, philosophy, history, medicine, literature, art history, and cosmography in Armenian and many other languages.In addition to the Matenadarans Armenian manuscripts, there is a vast collection of historical documents numbering over 2,000 in languages such as Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Japanese and Russian. The Mashtots Matenadaran Ancient Manuscripts Collection was inscribed on UNESCOs Memory of the World Programme Register in 1997 in recognition of its world significance.Cascade complex
The Cascade is a giant stairway made of limestone in Yerevan, Armenia. It links the downtown Ketron area of Yerevan with the Monument neighborhood. Designed by architects Jim Torosyan, Aslan Mkhitaryan, and Sargis Gurzadyan the construction of the cascade started in 1971 and was partially completed in 1980. Inside the Cascade, underneath the exterior steps, are seven escalators that rise along the length of the complex. There are also exhibit halls connected to some of the landings along the escalators which compose the Cafesjian Museum of Art. There are a number of cafes and restaurants on both sides of the Cascade frequented by locals and tourists. Classical and jazz concerts often take place at the Cascade during spring, summer and early autumn, with spectators sitting on the steps.Mother Armenia
Mother Armenia is a female personification of Armenia. Her most public visual rendering is a monumental statue in Victory Park overlooking the capital city. "Mother Armenia" has a height of 22 metres, thus making the overall height of the monument 51 metres, including the pedestal. The statue is built of hammered copper while the pedestal-museum is of basalt.The Mother Armenia statue symbolises peace through strength. It can remind viewers of some of the prominent female figures in Armenian history, such as Sose Mayrig and others, who took up arms to help their husbands in their clashes with Turkish troops and Kurdish irregulars. It also recalls the important status and value attributed to the older female members of an Armenian family.
Its location on a hill overlooking Yerevan makes it look like a guardian of the Armenian capital. Every year on 9 May, thousands of Armenians visit the statue of Mother Armenia and lay flowers to commemorate the Armenian martyrs of the Second World War.
The Yerevan History Museum is the history museum of Yerevan, the capital city of Armenia. The museum was founded in 1931 as the Communal Museum. Currently, the museum is located in a building attached to the Yerevan City Hall. The architect of the building was Jim Torosyan.
As of 2018, there are more than 94,000 objects held in the Yerevan History Museum which represent the local culture from ancient times to the present day. The collections of archaeology, ethnography, numismatics, fine arts, written records, and photography, kept in storage in the museum, tell a vivid story about the past and the present of the capital city and its people. There are three scientific expositions of the museum, that have collected, studied and showed objects highlighting the history of Yerevan.
Republic Square is the central town square in Yerevan, the capital of Armenia. It consists of two sections: an oval roundabout and a trapezoid-shaped section which contains a pool with musical fountains. The square is surrounded by five major buildings built in pink and yellow tuff in the neoclassical style with extensive use of Armenian motifs. This architectural ensemble includes the Government House, the History Museum and the National Gallery, Armenia Marriott Hotel and the ministries of Foreign Affairs and Transport and Communications. The square was originally designed by Alexander Tamanian in 1924. The construction of most of the buildings was completed by the 1950s; the last building—the National Gallery—was completed in 1977.
Northern Avenue is a pedestrian avenue in Yerevan, opened in 2007. It is in the central Kentron district and links Abovyan Street with Freedom Square on Tumanyan street. It is 450 metres (1,480 ft) long and 27 metres (89 ft) wide. Located in downtown Yerevan, the avenue is mainly home to luxurious residential buildings, high-end branded shops, commercial offices, coffee shops, hotels, restaurants, and nightclubs.
Armenian National Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet named after Alexander Spendiaryan was officially opened on 20 January 1933, with Alexander Spendiaryans Almast opera performance. The opera building was designed by the Armenian architect Alexander Tamanian. It consists of two concert halls: the Aram Khatchaturian concert hall with 1,400 seats and the Alexander Spendiaryan Opera and Ballet National Theatre with 1,200 seats. The opening of the theatre promoted the creation of new national operas and ballets. The first Armenian ballet was Happiness by Aram Khachaturian. On the basis of this ballet the composer soon created Gayane which has been performed all over the world.
Many years ago Tosya Gharibyan, a resident of the Arinj village in Kotayk Province, asked her husband to dig her a potato cellar in their home’s basement. That request, made in 1985, changed the future direction of Levon Arakelyan’s life. A builder by profession, Levon proceeded to dig and dig singlehandedly for the next 23 years until his death. Tosya. Levon’s wife, says that Levon saw a vision and heard a voice from the midst of a white fog tell him, “Levon, you will perform one singular miracle in this world. You will become sick. Do not fear any illness. What images you see before your eyes, you will reproduce exactly.” After this, master Levon decided to dig the potato cellar deep and wide. The underground cave goes 21 meters deep into the earth. The museum has seven rooms that are interconnected by a maze of corridors and steps. The floor space of the cave is 280 square meters. The temperature in the cave remains a constant 10 degrees Centigrade, in both summer and winter. Levon’s only tools were a hammer and chisel.
2. Yerevan city tour
Matenadaran, Cascade complex, Mother Armenia (Monument), Museum of History, Republic Square, Northern avenue, Opera house, Levon cave
* The unused portions of the itinerary are not refundable.